Glossary of Terms Typical to Real Estate Transactions


This “Glossary of Terms” is not intended to be a complete list of terms related to “Real Estate” matters or related transactions or to constitute legal advice. It is merely an aid to assist our customers and business partners in understanding the nature and services provided by NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY. Many other resources are available for you to consult which have more detailed and more complete definitions of terms commonly used in transactions involving “Real Property”. If you require legal assistance you should consult a qualified legal professional licensed in the jurisdiction where you intend to do business.

“Abstract”. See “Abstract of Title”.

“Abstract Company” is a company in the business of preparing “Abstract of Title”, Title Searches” and related services including closing or assisting in the closing of real estate and “Mortgage” transactions. It may also be identified as an “Abstract Plant” or “Title Plant”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is such a company. Visit our HOME page.

“Abstract Department” is a Department, usually of an “Abstract Company”, “Abstract Plant”, “Title Plant” “Title Company” or “Title Insurance Company”, dedicated to “Abstracting Services”. See also “Abstract of Title”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY maintains such a Department through which we are able to thoroughly search and examine real property records and provide “Abstracts of Title” to Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others involved in real property transactions. Visit our “Title Abstracting” Services Department.

“Abstract of Title” is a report on the history of a “parcel” of real property; its “Chain of Title” and “Encumbrances”. See also “Title Abstract”.

“Abstract Plant”. See “Title Plant” and “Abstract Company”.

“Adjustable Rate Mortgages” also called “ARMs”. These are loans, payable over time, with interest, the rate of which interest is “Adjustable”, that is, it fluctuates, in accordance with pre-set conditions negotiated before the loan is finalized. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Amortize” in the context of most real property transactions means to liquidate a debt, such as a mortgage, by installment payments, that is, regular payments over a period of time.

“ARM” (or “ARMs”). See “Adjustable Rate Mortgages”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Balloon Mortgages”, sometimes called “Interest-Only Mortgages” are not really “interest only” – but usually require only the payment of interest, for a fixed period of time, but when that time has run, the full balance, including the full amount of the principal loan and any unpaid interest and other fees, comes due in one final, usually large (“Balloon”), payment. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Book and Page”. See “Official Record Book” and “Public Records”.

“Bridge Loans” or “Swing Loans” are most often used when a homeowner has put a home up for sale with the intent of buying another home. If the first home has not sold, a loan of this sort is used to take existing equity from the first home and apply it to the purchase price of the second. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Buyer’s Documents” are those documents related to a real estate sale and purchase transaction that are typically the obligation of the Buyer (or the Buyer’s attorney or agent) to prepare. See also “Lender’s Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY can prepare “Buyer’s Documents”, “Escrow Documents”, “Lender’s Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”.

“Chain of Title” is the history of ownership of a “parcel” of real property. It begins with the original owner of record (the first “link” in the chain), and lists each subsequent owner to the present day (the last or most recent “link” in the chain).

“Clearing the Cloud on Title” refers to actions, such as payoff of liens or other “Encumbrance” impacting “Legal Title”, or legal actions resulting on court orders or judgments which may be recorded in the “Public Records”, so as to eliminate “Title Defects” and clarify ambiguous matters pertaining to “Chain of Title” of certain real property. See also “Chain of Title”.

“Closer” in the context of real estate transactions is the person responsible for the closing of the sale and purchase, “Mortgage”, “Re-financing” and related transactions.

“Closing” is, with regard to real property transactions, the act(s) requisite to finalizing such transactions, including the signing and sealing of papers and exchange of funds. Typically the parties to the transactions, or their agents or attorneys, attend a meeting, described as the “Closing” at which such events occur. However, under certain circumstances, these acts may occur at different times and places. When all acts are complete, whether at one time and place or over several days in more than one location, the transaction, when finalized, is said to be “closed”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY maintains a “Closing Department”. Department through which we are able to thoroughly search and examine real property records and provide “Abstracts of Title” to Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others involved in real property transactions.

“Closing Agent” is typically, in real estate transactions, a representative of a “Title Company” or an attorney who oversees the closing of the transaction and who may also witness the signing of related documents.

“Closing Department” is a Department, usually of an “Abstract Company”, “Abstract Plant”, “Title Plant” “Title Company” or “Title Insurance Company”, dedicated to “Closing Services”. See also “Closing”. Through its “Closing Department” NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY maintains such a Department through which we are able to prepare, review, finalize and amend “Closing Documents” and oversee and facilitate the “Closing” of real property transactions for the benefit of Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others. Visit our “Closing” Services Department

“Closing Documents” is a general term referring to all documents related to or required for the “Closing” of a given real property transaction. See also “Buyer’s Documents”, “Lender’s Documents”, and “Seller’s Documents”. Through its “Closing Department” NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is able to prepare, review, finalize and amend “Closing Documents” and oversee and facilitate the “Closing” of real property transactions for the benefit of Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others. Visit our “Closing” Services Department

“Closing Services” in the context of real estate transactions are services related to the “Closing” or finalization of those transactions. This term is often applied to the finalization of a sale and purchase, a “Mortgage” or a “Refinancing” transaction.

“Cloud on Title” is said to occur when defects in title arise, such as claims or encumbrances including things like city or county liens, liens filed by those who worked on the property and did not receive full payment, liens for unpaid utility bills or condominium maintenance fees, mortgages, and in rare cases, alternative or “wild” deeds that may be the result of mistake or fraud

“Combination Mortgage” or “Piggyback Mortgage” refers to financing two loans: a “First Mortgage” and a “Second Mortgage”, which may be fixed rate or adjustable-rate Mortgages or some combination. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Commitment”. See “Title Insurance Commitment”.

“Condominium” is a defined parcel of real property, which may consist of one or more buildings in which each “Unit” is individually owned but the common grounds (or a portion of them) such as parking lots, swimming pools and green spaces are owned jointly. This term may also refer to a single “Unit” or apartment within a “Condominium” complex. In the State of Florida and in other jurisdictions a “Condominium” may contain residential or commercial “Units” or both.

“Co-Op”. See “Cooperative Housing”.

“Cooperative Housing” is somewhat akin to ownership of a “Condominium” “Unit” but is different in that a member of the “Condominium” actually owns real property, that is, the “Unit” in which the Owners holds “Title” as well as having certain defined interests in parts of the “Condominium” property held in common with other owners. However in “Cooperative Housing” the “Owner” does not purchase real property but instead purchases stock in a corporation that owns real property, and purchases as well certain rights, through a contract, to occupy an apartment or “Unit” in a building or otherwise on real property owned by the corporation.

“Covenant” is generally a promise to engage in or refrain from a specified action. In the context of real estate transactions it is a term, condition or restriction that may attach to a “Parcel” of real property, and be binding on successive owners.

“Deed” in the context of real property usually means a legal document signed, sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of real property from a “Grantor” (former owner) to a “Grantee” (new owner) and to demonstrate legal right of possession. Often a “Deed” is recorded in the “Public Records” so as to provide notice of ownership but not every “Deed” is recorded.

“Defects of Title”. See “Title Defects”.

“Encumbrance” in matters concerning real property is a hindrance, burden or claim on property, as a “Mortgage”.

“Equity” in the context of real property transactions is the value an owner has acquired in real property. If for example an owner bought property worth $100,000.00, paid $25,000.00 cash and took out a $75,000.00 mortgage, the “Equity” at the start of the loan is $25,000.00. If after a year the owner pays down the loan to a balance due of $70,000.00, an additional $5,000.00 “Equity” has been obtained by the owner, so that the total “Equity” becomes $80,000.00. Assuming the total debt reduces every month with monthly “Mortgage” payments, “Equity” increases every month. Equity can also increase or decrease over time as property value increases or decreases: so, if the real property was worth $100,000.00 at the time it was purchased but the market value has increased so that it would sell for $200,000.00 that increase in value adds $100,000.00 to the homeowner’s “Equity”. On the other hand of the owner bought real property for $100,000.00 but current market value is only $75,000.00 then the owner will have lost $25,00.00 of “Equity”.

“Escrow” is something kept by a third person for delivery to a certain party upon satisfaction of a condition or completion of an agreement; a contract, deed, or sum of money deposited with a third person, by whom it is to be delivered to a specified person or entity upon fulfillment of a specific term or condition; to place in “Escrow”, as when an intended Buyer of real property offers to escrow the sum of $5000 with a broker or attorney as “Good Faith Money” in the offer of a contract to purchase real property.

“Escrow Account” is a term that may be used in several ways. With regard to a transaction involving funds “escrowed” and held by an “Escrow Agent”, it may be the bank or other account (often regulated by some agency) in which those funds are maintained pending delivery by the “Escrow Agent” to a certain party upon satisfaction of a condition or completion of an agreement. With regard to a “Mortgage” transaction it may be a trust account held by the “Lender” in the name of the “Borrower” to pay obligations related to maintenance of the real property that has been mortgaged, such as property taxes and insurance premiums, but not principal or interest payment on the mortgage itself.

“Escrow Agent” is a person or entity holding and maintaining documents or money at the request of others, pending the occurrence of certain terms or conditions as between those others, as for example the transfer of real property. An “Escrow Agent” acts for both parties according to instructions, which are now almost always written. An “Escrow Agent” is often an attorney, an “Escrow” company or frequently in the context of a real estate transaction, a title company. A dispute between the parties giving rise to alternate instructions, unless resolved, will compromise the “Escrow Agent”, who is typically unable to “choose sides”. This sort of dispute frequently results in judicial determination of the rights of the parties claiming an interest in the things escrowed. Unless actions of the “Escrow Agent” gave rise to the dispute, the “Escrow Agent” is often relieved of any obligation to the disputing parties upon judicial intervention.

“Escrow Documents” are documents related to the “Escrow” of things or funds. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY can prepare “Escrow Documents” as wel as “Buyer’s Documents”, “Lender’s Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”.

“Federal Housing Administration Loans” or “FHA Loans” (sometimes referred to broadly as a “Government Mortgages”) are federally assisted mortgage loans available in the United States, which are insured by the “Federal Housing Administration” (“FHA”). For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“FHA Loans” or “Federal Housing Administration Loans” (sometimes referred to broadly as a “Government Mortgages”) are federally assisted mortgage loans available in the United States, which are insured by the “Federal Housing Administration” (“FHA”). These loans are more properly referred to as “FHA-Insured Loans” For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“FHA-Insured Loans”. See “FHA Loans”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“First Mortgage” is a “Mortgage” that typically has a higher priority, that is, “rank” in terms of payoff at foreclosure, than a “Second Mortgage”. See also “Mortgage”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Fixed Rate Mortgages”. These are loans, payable over time, with interest, the “rate” of which interest is “fixed” for the duration of the loan. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Foreclosure” is a sort of legal action (law suit). Under the proper conditions, i
t may be brought by a Lender who holds a “Promissory Note” and “Mortgage” (or by a successor to the Lender), and who has not been repaid according to the terms of their agreement, in order to obtain either the judicial sale of real property pledged as collateral or “security” for the loan to obtain money to pay back the loan, or to obtain the property itself in lieu of a cash repayment.

“Good and Clear Title” means “Title” to real property that is unencumbered or is encumbered by matters known and subject to elimination through the normal course of real estate transactions, such as, the payoff of a known, recorded “Mortgage Lien” at the time of a planned closing such that upon transfer of the real property from the “Grantor” to the “Grantee” the “Grantee” will take a “good” “Title”, free and “clear” of claims by third parties.

“Good Faith Money” is a sum of money, usually placed in “Escrow”, in conjunction with an offer of some sort, as a sign of seriousness of the offer, as when a potential Buyer of real property makes an offer to a potential Seller, advising the Seller that a sum of money has already been placed in reserve so as to initiate the transaction.

“Government Mortgage” is a broad terms which usually refers to “Federal Housing Administration Loans” (or “FHA loans”) or to “VA loans” (more appropriately termed “VA Insured Loans”). For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Grantee” is one who receives a grant of some sort. In the context of real property transactions, usually the “Buyer” of real property who through a “Deed” or other written instrument obtains a “grant” of “Title” to real property from a predecessor in interest, usually the “Seller”, is referred to as the “Grantor”.

“Grantor” is one who gives a grant of some sort. In the context of real property transactions, usually the “Seller” of real property who through a “Deed” or other written instrument transfers or “grants” “Title” to real property to a successor in interest, usually the “Buyer”, referred to as the “Grantee”.

“Home Equity Loans” are a class of loans against the “Equity” or value an owner has acquired in real property. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Improvements” in the context of real property transactions are things (such as buildings) permanently affixed to the land which are said (rightly or wrongly) to “improve” it. Certain documents related to real property transactions will often refer to “the land and all ‘Improvements’ thereto”. See also “Real Estate” and “Real Property”.

“In-House Attorneys” are attorneys retained or maintained on staff, generally by a business entity (as opposed to an individual), to perform legal and related services on behalf of that business entity. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY has “In-House Attorneys” on its staff to assist us in all facets of real property transactions, including research and review, drafting and amending documents and rendering opinions regarding the “Title” to real property.

“Interest-Only Mortgages” are also called “Balloon Mortgages”, and are not really “interest only” – but usually require only the payment of interest, for a fixed period of time, but when that time has run, the full balance, including the full amount of the principal loan and any unpaid interest and other fees, comes due in one final, usually large (“Balloon”), payment. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Legal Description” of real property is a description recorded in the Public Records of a city, county or state, which describes a certain “parcel” of real property. It may be a large, undivided parcel, or a smaller subdivided “parcel” of a once-larger tract of land. Not the address of the real property, the legal description may be stated in a manner known as “metes and bounds” (or “distance and boundaries”), for example:

beginning at a certain location, and then moving a specific number of feet in a particular direction to another location, then moving a specific number of feet in another direction …

and so on until arrival at the beginning location, thus describing a “parcel” of land); or it may be by reference to a previously described and recorded “parcel” of real property (for example, referencing a “Lot” which has been subdivided in a map or “Plat”, a large parcel subdivided into smaller and smaller “parcels” such as “Courts” and “Blocks”, for example:

“Lot 10 of Block 100 in Court 5 of Green Acres as described and recorded in Plat Book 2 at Page 200 of the Public Records of Acme County in the State of East Carolina”).

“Legal description” may also include reference to a particular “Unit” in a particluar “Condominium” or other development or building, such as:

Unit 50 of Blue Acres Condominium Phase Z according to the Declaration of Condominium recorded in the Public Records of Acme County, East Carolina, in Official Record Book 3000 beginning at Page 1500.

“Legal Title” to real property: See “Title”.

“Lender’s Documents” (also called “Mortgage Documents”) are those documents related to a real estate sale and purchase transaction that are typically the obligation of the Lender (that is, the “Mortgagee” or its attorney or agent) to prepare. See also “Buyer’s Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY can prepare “Lender’s Documents”, “Buyer’s Documents”, “Escrow Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”.

“Lender’s Policy” (or “Lender’s Title Insurance Policy”) is a “Title Insurance Policy” issued to a Lender holding a “Mortgage” on real property, insuring “Title” to the real property used by the Owner/Borrower as collateral for the “Mortgage”.

“Lender’s Title Insurance Policy” (or “Lender’s Policy”) is a “Title Insurance Policy” issued to a Lender holding a “Mortgage” on real property, insuring “Title” to the real property used by the Owner/Borrower as collateral for the “Mortgage”.

“Lifetime Mortgage” (or “Reverse Mortgage”) is a sort of “Home Equity Loan” with either a fixed or adjustable interest rate, available to seniors, aged 62 years or older, who have substantial equity in their home. Financially this arrangement is the opposite or “reverse” of a typical mortgage – instead of making monthly payments to the lender, the lender makes monthly payments to the borrower for life or for as long as the borrower resides in the home, but the borrower surrenders the home to the lender if the owner moves or when the owner dies. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Lot” is a distinct “parcel” of land of no particular size or shape, but often described and intended for a particular purpose such as the building of a commercial or residential structure, as in “a building “Lot”. See also “Legal description”.

“Metes and Bounds” (or “distance and boundaries”) is a method of describing a a “parcel” of land, for example, beginning at a certain location, and then moving a specific number of feet in a particular direction to another location, then moving a specific number of feet in another direction, and so on until arrival at the beginning location.

“Mortgage” is a loan to an owner of real property secured by the real property, which is pledged as “collateral” against the debt. In a mortgage transaction the “Lender” is the “Mortgagee” and the owner, as a “Borrower” who pledges real property as collateral for the loan, is the “Mortgagor”.

“Mortgage Broker” may be an individual or company that acts as an intermediary who, generally for a fee, obtains mortgages for others by finding banks or other lending institutions or private sources to lend money for a “Mortgage”. A “Mortgage Broker” may also take responsibility for collection and disbursement of funds. In many jurisdictions a “Mortgage Broker” must be licensed and is subject to governmental rules and regulations.

“Mortgage Documents”. See “Lender’s Documents”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY can prepare “Mortgage Documents” (also called “Lender’s Documents”), “Buyer’s Documents”, “Escrow Documents” and “Seller’s Documents”.

“Mortgagee” is the “Lender” in a “Mortgage” transaction.

“Mortgage Lien” is a lien upon real property which results from the creation of a mortgage between an Owner/Borrower and a lender.

“Mortgagor” is the “Borrower” who pledges real property as collateral in a “Mortgage” transaction.

“Note”. See “Promissory Note”.

“Official Record Book” also known as “ORB”. See “Public Records” See also “Book and Page”. .

“Old Republic National Title Insurance Company” is the “Title Insurance Underwriter” for NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY. It is “one of the nation’s largest title insurance groups, insuring risks on property located in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.” In 2007, the Old Republic Title Insurance Group celebrated its 100th anniversary. Visit “Old Republic National Title Insurance Company” at http://www.oldrepublictitle.com.

“Option ARMs” are a sub-class of “Adjustable Rate Mortgages” or “ARM”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Owner’s Policy” (or “Owner’s Title Insurance Policy”) is a “Title Insurance Policy” issued to the Owner of real property, insuring “Title” to the real property.

“Owner’s Title Insurance Policy” (or “Owner’s Policy”) is a “Title Insurance Policy” issued to the Owner of real property, insuring “Title” to the real property.

“Parcel” of land or of real property is a described subdivision of land, usually recorded in the “Public Records”. It may be of any size or shape.

“Piggyback Mortgage” or “Combination Mortgage” refers to financing two loans: a “First Mortgage” and a “Second Mortgage”, which may be fixed rate or adjustable-rate Mortgages or some combination. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Plat” is a piece or plot of land; or a map showing actual or intended features, such as roads, parks and “Lots”. It may be as small as a small subdivision intended for just a few homes or as large as the area of an entire town or city. It is often recorded in the “Public Records” in an “Official Record Book” or a certain sort of “Official Record Book” known as a “Plat Book” dedicated to recording only “Plats”.

“Priority” in the context of real estate transactions refers usually to the ranking of liens, specifically “Mortgage Liens”. A “First Mortgage” typically has a higher priority, that is, rank in terms of payoff at foreclosure, than a “Second Mortgage”

“Prior Policies” (or “Prior Title Insurance Policies”) in the context of real property transactions are earlier-issued “Title Insurance Policies” on a particular “Parcel” which insure “Title” to that “Parcel”, usually through the date of issuance of that “Prior Policies”. Subsequent “Title Insurance Policies” rely on the “Prior Policies” to insure good “Title” through the date if issuance of the “Prior Policies”. For example: if an Owner “1” acquires a “Title Insurance Policy” on his real property in the year 2000, and sells it to Owner “2” in the year 2005, the “Title Insurance Policy” issued in 2005 need only insure title back to 2000, because Owner “1”’s “Prior Policy” insures “Title” through 2000. If Owner “2” sells to Owner “3” in 2007, then the “Title Insurance Policy” issued to Owner “3”, relying on the “Prior Policies”, need only insure “Title” from 2005 through 2007, and so on.

“Prior Title Insurance Policies”. See “Prior Policies”.

“Promissory Note” (or “Note”) is a written promise to pay back a loan (commonly called an “IOU”). In the context of real estate transactions it is commonly associated with a pledge of real property as security against the loan, in the form of a written “Mortgage” which, when recorded, creates a “Mortgage Lien”

“Plat Book” is a certain sort of “Official Record Book” dedicated to recording only “Plats”.

“Public Records” are records maintained by a governmental agency (for example, the Clerk of the Courts of a particular county) which contain, among other things, deeds filed (or “recorded”) to demonstrate ownership or “Title” to a particular parcel of real property. Public Records may also contain “Mortgages” or “Liens” encumbering real property, as well as other documents, including judgments, that may or may not pertain, directly or indirectly, to real property. Historically, Public Records were maintained in “Official Record Books” (sometimes abbreviated as “ORB”) and the location of documents was referenced by its particular “Page(s)” in a particluar Official Record Book”. More and more, Public Records are being maintained digitally, but reference is still (for now at least”) by “ORB” and “Page” number. Thus a particular deed or mortgage or other document recorded in the Public Records of a certain county in a certain state may be referenced as being found at “ORB 100 at Page 250”.

“Real Estate” is land together with those “Improvements” (such as buildings) permanently affixed to the land. See also “Real Property”.

“Real Property” is land together with those “Improvements” (such as buildings) permanently affixed to the land. “Real Property” is one of three main classes of property generally recognized in law, the others being “Personal Property” (“tangible” property, or things that can be “touched” and moved from place to place including things as small and valueless as a sewing needle or as large and valuable as a bulldozer); and “Intellectual Property” (that is, “intangible” property, that is, things of value but which can not be “touched”, such as the good will associated with a name-brand item, or things that may be trade-marked, patented or copyrighted). See also “Real Estate”.

“Re-financing” means to renew the terms of a loan or to replace an existing financial obligation with a new one with new terms. This word is commonly used in connection with the replacement of one “Mortgage” with another, often to obtain a lower interest rate or to obtain additional “Equity” from real property.

“Reverse Mortgage” (or “Lifetime Mortgage”) is a sort of “Home Equity Loan” with either a fixed or adjustable interest rate, available to seniors, aged 62 years or older, who have substantial equity in their home. Financially this arrangement is the opposite or “reverse” of a typical mortgage – instead of making monthly payments to the lender, the lender makes monthly payments to the borrower for life or for as long as the borrower resides in the home, but the borrower surrenders the home to the lender if the owner moves or when the owner dies. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Scanning Technology” is that technology that allows hand-written, typed or drawn documents (such as maps and plats) to be put into a digital format, preserved in virtual memory and made more readily available to those with access to such digital records. Many municipalities are taking

“Second Mortgage” is a “Mortgage” that typically has a lower priority, that is, rank in terms of payoff at foreclosure, than a “First Mortgage”. See also “Mortgage”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Seller’s Documents” are those documents related to a real estate sale and purchase transaction that are typically the obligation of the Seller (or the Seller’s attorney or agent) to prepare. See also “Lender’s Documents” and “Buyer’s Documents”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY can prepare “Seller’s Documents”, “Buyer’s Doc uments”, “Escrow Documents” and “Lender’s Doc uments”.

“Swing Loans” or “Bridge Loans” are most often used when a homeowner has put a home up for sale with the intent of buying another home. If the first home has not sold, a loan of this sort is used to take existing equity from the first home and apply it to the purchase price of the second. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“Title” to real property: the established and recognized right(s) to real property, which may form the ground or basis of a claim of ownership, possession or some other right. “Title” to real property may also refer to the instrument or document that provides evidence of those rights (for example a “Deed”), or to the designation of the basis of judicial relief.

“Title Abstract”. See “Abstract of Title”.

Title Abstract Department” is a Department, usually of an “Abstract Company”, “Abstract Plant”, “Title Plant” “Title Company” or “Title Insurance Company”, dedicated to “Abstracting Services”. See also “Abstract”, “Abstract of Title” and “Title Abstract”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is able to prepare, review, finalize and amend “Abstracts of Title” and oversee and facilitate the “Closing” of real property transactions for the benefit of Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others. Visit our “title Abstracting” Services Department

“Title Agency”. See “Title Company”.

“Title Company” is a company that undertakes a “Title Search” and closes or assists in the closing of real estate and “Mortgage” transactions. Such a company may also be known as a “Title Insurance Company” or “Title Agency” engaged in the business of issuing “Title Insurance Commitments” and selling “Title Insurance Policies”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is such a company.

“Title Department” is a Department, usually of an “Title Company”, “Abstract Company”, “Abstract Plant”, “Title Plant” or “Title Insurance Company”, dedicated to “Abstracting Services”. See also “Abstract”, “Abstract of Title” and “Title Abstract”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is able to prepare, review, finalize and amend “Abstracts of Title” and oversee and facilitate the “Closing” of real property transactions for the benefit of Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others. Visit our “title Abstracting” Services Department

“Title Defects” (or “Defects of Title”) are claims or encumbrances including things like city or county liens, liens filed by those who worked on the property and did not receive full payment, liens for unpaid utility bills or condominium maintenance fees, mortgages, and in rare cases, alternative or “wild” deeds that may be the result of mistake or fraud.

“Title Insurance” through a “Title Insurance Policy” protects from loss, or “insures”, the insured party or parties (usually the Buyer/Owner of real property and the Lender who accepts real property as collateral for a loan) from claims of others contest ownership rights in the real property which is insured.

“Title Insurance Binder”. Evidence, usually in writing and signed by an agent of the insurer, of temporary “Title Insurance” coverage.

“Title Insurance Commitment” is a commitment by an insurer, upon completion of a “Title Search”, to provide a proposed insured party with a “Title Insurance Policy” upon the closing of a transaction involving real property. It is a statement, usually in writing and signed by an agent of the insurer, stating the “Title Policy Conditions” and “Title Policy Exceptions” under which the insurer will insure a particular parcel of real property, thus reflecting the condition of title to the real property, telling whether taxes and assessments are paid, and what liens, encumbrances or Defects of Title exist, and what other current claims, if any, against the real property exist.

“Title Insurance Company”. See “Title Company”. While NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is not an insurance company NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY does obtain through Old Republic National Title Insurance Company coverage for Owners and Lenders through the provision of “Title Insurance Policies”. Visit our HOME page or visit our Title Insurance Services Department.

“Title Insurance Department” is a Department, usually of an “Abstract Company”, “Title Insurance Company” or “Title Company”, dedicated to “Abstracting Services”. See also “Title Insurance” and related terms, and “Abstract of Title” and “Title Abstract”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is able to prepare, review, finalize and amend “Abstracts of Title” and oversee and facilitate the “Closing” of real property transactions for the benefit of Owners, Buyers, Sellers, Lenders and others. Visit our Title Insurance Services Department

“Title Insurance Policy” is a written insurance policy insuring the “Title” to real property. See also “Title Insurance”.

“Title Insurance Underwriter” is a financial institution that sells “Title Insurance”. At NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY “Old Republic National Title Insurance Company” is our “Title Insurance Underwriter” and we maintain an in-house representative for the convenience of our customers and business partners. Visit “Old Republic National Title Insurance Company” at http://www.oldrepublictitle.com.

“Title Insurer”. See “Title Insurance Underwriter”.

“Title Policy Conditions” are those expressed conditions, usually contained in a written “Title Insurance Commitment” under which a “Title Insurance Company” will issue a “Title Insurance Policy”. Often there are also “Title Policy Exceptions” stated in the “Title Insurance Commitment”.

“Title Policy Exceptions” are those expressed matters , usually contained in a written “Title Insurance Commitment”, which will not be insured, but which rather will be “excepted” from a “Title Insurance Policy”, which subject to certain expressed “Title Policy Conditions” may issue upon agreement of the parties.

“Title Plant” is a cross-referenced index of the “legal descriptions”of real properties and recorded documents filed in the “Public Records” relating to those described properties. Usually a Title Plant relates to a limited geographic area, such as a town, county or state. “Title Plant” may also refer to the company that owns the cross-referenced index of the “legal descriptions”of real properties and recorded documents filed in the “Public Records”. NATIONAL TITLE and ABSTRACT COMPANY is such a company. Visit our HOME page.

“Title Search” is a search of the “Public Records” relating to real property, often utilising a “Title Plant” and resulting in the preparation of an “Abstract of Title”.

“Unit” in real property transactions usually refers to one of many smaller parcels of real property within a larger subdivision. Often a “Unit” is an apartment or townhouse in a “Condominium” or “Cooperative” association (or “Co-Op”) and may form part of a “Legal Description” of such a place, for example: “Unit 100 of the Shady Rest Condominium and recorded in the Declaration of Condominium appearing in Official Record Book 500 beginning at Page 250.”

“VA Loans” (sometimes referred to broadly as a “Government Mortgages”) are mortgage loans available in the United States only to veterans of the United States Armed Services possessing an honorable discharge and Certificate of Eligibility and, in certain cases, available to un-remarried spouses of deceased veterans, and are guaranteed by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.

“VA Insured Loans”. See “VA loans”. For a more complete description go to our webpage section titled: “Types of Mortgages”.